Rapid 4 to 6 hour detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in a routine laboratory

Ercis S., Sancak B., Kocagoez T., Kocagoez S., Hascelik G., Bolmstrom A.

SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES, vol.39, no.9, pp.781-785, 2007 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier


With the growing frequency of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases ( ESBL) among Enterobacteriaceae, treatment of Gram-negative nosocomial infections requires rapid and reliable detection of this enzyme. Quicolor agar ( QC agar) ( Salubris Inc., Massachusetts, USA) is a novel chromogenic agar medium changing colour within 4 to 6 h due to the metabolic activity of growing bacteria. This study investigated the use of QC agar compared to Mueller Hinton agar ( MH) for the detection of ESBL using disk diffusion and E-test. 100 Enterobacteriaceae isolated at Hacettepe University Hospital, of which 50 were predetermined to be ESBL positive and 50 as negative using the CLSI disk diffusion ESBL ( phenotypic confirmatory test) criteria. For disk diffusion and E-test, cefotaxime +/- clavulanate ( CT/CTL) and ceftazidime +/- clavulanate ( TZ/TZL) were used, and for E-test, cefepime +/- clavulanate ( PM/PML) was also used. QC agar rapid ESBL results for all strains were in agreement with the standard overnight procedure. All 50 ESBL positives were detected by both methods. For the 50 ESBL negatives, QC agar rapid results from E-test and disk diffusion were in complete accordance with the overnight MH results. Moreover, E-test detected 8 additional ESBL positive strains that disk diffusion missed. For disk diffusion, CT/CTL alone detected all 50 ESBL positives while TZ/TZL alone missed 5 ESBL positives. E-test CT/CTL alone confirmed all 50 ESBL positives and identified 4 additional ESBL-positive strains. When used together, E-test CT/CTL, TZ/TZL and PM/PML identified a total of 58 ESBL positives among the 100 strains tested. QC agar can be used for rapid and reliable ESBL detection within 4 to 6 h, using disk diffusion and E-test ESBL reagents. This rapid method should be further validated using genotype characterized ESBL and other beta-lactamase positive strains.