Translating a US Early Palliative Care Model for Turkey and Singapore

AKYAR İ., Dionne-Odom J. N., Yang G. M., Bakitas M. A.

ASIA-PACIFIC JOURNAL OF ONCOLOGY NURSING, vol.5, no.1, pp.33-39, 2018 (ESCI) identifier identifier


The field of palliative care is growing in acceptance and sophistication globally. No longer considered just for patients at end-of-life, palliative care is now being incorporated early in the disease trajectory. Despite professional guidelines supporting early palliative care, there are few models that have been created that can be translated into practice cross-culturally. In the United States, the Educate, Nurture, Advise, Before, Life Ends (ENABLE) early palliative care telehealth model has demonstrated effectiveness in improving quality of life, mood, symptom relief, and survival for patients with cancer and is now being tested in patients with heart failure. Family caregivers of patients who have received ENABLE concurrent with their care recipients have also demonstrated positive outcomes in quality of life and caregiver burden. Internationally, a number of investigators are culturally adapting ENABLE for patients and family caregivers. While some elements of ENABLE, such as symptom management and self-care, and the caregiving role are relevant cross-culturally, others have been built on Western principles of self-determination or represent concepts such as advance care planning which will require more cultural adaptation. In addition, ENABLE was initially an in-person approach that was converted to telehealth to accommodate a rural population-it will be important to understand cultural norms related to receiving care by phone or if an in-person approach will be more culturally acceptable. This paper describes efforts in Turkey and Singapore to culturally adapt the ENABLE early palliative care principles for their countries.