A series of novel bio-polyester nanocomposites based on glycerin and azelaic acid as monomers incorporating hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles were fabricated via in situ polymerization method. Chemical structure of the samples was investigated by H-1-NMR, C-13-NMR, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Energy dispersive X-ray-mapping analysis illustrated that the nanoparticles were well dispersed in the poly (glycerol azelaic acid) (PGAZ) matrix. Viscoelastic properties of the samples under various frequencies were examined in which the PGAZ specimen containing 1.0 wt% of HA nanoparticles (PGAZH1.0) exhibited superlative properties. Furthermore, the alterations in the glass transition temperature of the samples were comprehensively discussed. Thermal gravimetric analysis displayed that nanocomposites generally have a difference in degradation patterns from that of the pristine sample. Dynamic contact angle demonstrated that the presence of HA nanoparticles imposed a significant influence on hydrophilicity. The hydrolytic degradation values at pH = 7 and pH = 11 were measured and determined that the degradation rate for the PGAZ sample containing 1.5 wt% HA (PGAZH1.5) was higher than those of the other samples. Moreover, in vitro studies elucidated that cell attachment on PGAZH1.0 and PAZH1.5 surfaces were acceptable.