Assessment of Binaural Benefits in Hearing and Hearing-Impaired Listeners

Öz O., D'Alessandro H. D., BATUK M., SENNAROĞLU G., Govaerts P. J.

Journal of speech, language, and hearing research : JSLHR, vol.66, no.9, pp.3633-3648, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 66 Issue: 9
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1044/2023_jslhr-23-00077
  • Journal Name: Journal of speech, language, and hearing research : JSLHR
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, Communication & Mass Media Index, EBSCO Education Source, Education Abstracts, ERIC (Education Resources Information Center), Linguistic Bibliography, Linguistics & Language Behavior Abstracts, MEDLINE, MLA - Modern Language Association Database, Psycinfo
  • Page Numbers: pp.3633-3648
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to (a) investigate which speech material is most appropriate as stimulus in head shadow effect (HSE) and binaural squelch (SQ) tests, (b) obtain normative values of both tests using the material decided to be optimal, and (c) explore the results in bilateral cochlear implant (CI) users. METHOD: Study participants consisted of 30 normal-hearing (NH) persons and 34 bilateral CI users. This study consisted of three phases. In the first phase, three different speech materials (1) monosyllabic words, (2) spondee words, and (3) sentences were compared in terms of (a) effect size, (b) test-retest reliability, and (c) interindividual variability. In the second phase, the speech material selected in the first phase was used to test a further 24 NHs to obtain normative values for both tests. In the third phase, tests were administered to a further 23 bilateral CI users, together with localization test and the Speech, Spatial, and Qualities of Hearing scale. RESULTS: The results of the first phase indicated that spondees and sentences were more robust materials compared with monosyllables. Although the effect size and interindividual variability were comparable for spondees and sentences, sentences had higher test-retest reliability in this sample of CI users. With sentences, the mean (± standard deviation) HSE and SQ in the NH group were 58 ± 14% and 22 ± 11%, respectively. In the CI group, the mean HSE and SQ were 49 ± 13% and 13 ± 14%, respectively. There were no statistically significant correlations between the test results and the interval between the implantations, the length of binaural listening experience, or the asymmetry between the ears. CONCLUSIONS: Sentences are preferred as stimulus material in the binaural HSE and SQ tests. Normative data are given for HSE and SQ with the LiCoS (linguistically controlled sentences) test. HSE is present for all bilateral CI users, whereas SQ is present in approximately seven out of 10 cases.