Free and circular jets cooled by single phase nanofluids


EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF MECHANICS B-FLUIDS, vol.76, pp.1-6, 2019 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier


Nanofluids are widely known to enhance the heat transfer rate resulting in a cooled system. In the present paper, we show mathematically that the nanofluids indeed cool the system as the nanoparticles volume fraction is increased. The key role is explained for a two-dimensional laminar free nanofluid jet and for a circular axisymmetric free nanofluid jet issuing into the same nanofluid medium. Exact nanofluid flow results are obtained and, integral flux relations of momentum and thermal layers concerning five most studied nanofluids, respectively Ag, Cu, CuO, Al2O3 and TiO2, are derived. A shape factor is defined controlling the momentum layer thickness. By means of another shape factor representing the thermal layer thickness, the relevant energy equation enables one to identify the regimes of nanoparticle size leading to a coolant jet, without a need to solve the energy equation fully. Two recently popular nanofluid models, resulting in the same conclusion, are examined on the considered free nanofluid jets. Additionally, an exact temperature field associated with the laminar two-dimensional free jet of nanoparticles is obtained offering explicit support to the current approach. (C) 2019 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.