Role of Nanoparticles in the Treatment of Noninvasive Bladder Cancer

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BİLENSOY E., Erdogar N., Mungan A. N.

UROONKOLOJI BULTENI-BULLETIN OF UROONCOLOGY, vol.14, no.1, pp.61-66, 2015 (ESCI) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 14 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2015
  • Doi Number: 10.4274/uob.246
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.61-66
  • Keywords: Bladder cancer, nanoparticle, intravesical, mitomycin C, BCG
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Bladder cancer is the ninth most common cancer types in the world and transitional bladder cancer constitutes 90% of all bladder cancer neoplasms depending on cancer cell morphology. Clinical choice of treatment is transurethral resection (TUR), after which the recurrence rate is 50-80% and the tumor has a 14% chance of progression. To avoid recurrence and progression, adjuvant intravesical chemotherapy or immunotherapy is required. Intravesical drug delivery has many advantages. Bladder allows manipulation since it is easily accessible and a closed area, allows catheterization rendering this organ to be an advantageous site for localized drug delivery. Drugs are administered into urinary bladder directly resulting in greater exposure of tissues to drug. On the other hand, because of periodical discharge, rapid drug dilution necessitates repeated catheterization and results in loss of drug efficacy. Another disadvantage is the very low permeability of urothelium. Urothelium limits the absorption of molecules into the systemic circulation and prevent adherence of foreign agents on the urothelial surface exerting the same effect of drugs and drug delivery systems. To overcome these problems, nanotechnological approach in the biomedical field seems promising and in this frame new drug carrier systems were focused and bioadhesive nanoparticles were developed. Nanoparticles are submicron, solid, colloidal particles in a size ranging between 10 to 1000 nm. Nanoparticles are generally prepared from biodegradable polymers with specific physicochemical properties and are loaded with active molecules to act as drug delivery systems. Bioadhesive nanoparticles allow prolonged residence time of drug in the mucosal tissues such as bladder wall and can be promising to pass the bladder permeability barrier. Due to their particle size and surface charge, they sustain the drug release at cancerous tissues and protect the drug from acidic urine pH and other degradation factors such as hydrolysis and photodegradation. In addition, nanoparticulate carriers form a drug reservoir in the action site to reduce drug loss and to improve drug efficacy. In this study, we aim to review the role and application of nanoparticles in noninvasive bladder tumors with current literature.