Effect of flour type on Maillard reaction and acrylamide formation during toasting of bread crisp model systems and mitigation strategies

Capuano E., Ferrigno A., Acampa I., Serpen A., Acar O. C. , GÖKMEN V. , ...More

FOOD RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL, vol.42, no.9, pp.1295-1302, 2009 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 42 Issue: 9
  • Publication Date: 2009
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.foodres.2009.03.018
  • Page Numbers: pp.1295-1302


Maillard reaction along with caramelisation are the main chemical reactions occurring in bakery products. They are referred to as non enzymatic browning. In this work, the effect of flour type (wheat rye, and whole-wheat flours) and process conditions were investigated by using a bread crisp model system made up of flour, water and yeast. The bread was toasted at different temperature for different times. In a second set of experiments several additives (glycine, 0.1% on flour; asparaginase, 2000 U kg(-1) of flour and an antioxidant extract from green tea) were added to the basic formulations in order to test their ability in reducing the formation of potentially harmful Maillard reaction compounds such as HMF and acrylamide. Browning development and water content along with antioxidant activity were also monitored.