Child survival is the focus of the fourth Millenium Developmental Goal (MDG4). This paper describes levels, trends, and differentials in Under-Five Mortality Rate (U5MR) and also summarizes state programmes in Turkey between 1988 and 2010. Turkey is among only a few countries that have already surpassed MDG4 and have reduced their under-five mortality rate by more than two-thirds. In 2010, 13 out of every 1,000 children died before their fifth birthday. Low birth weight, high-birth order, short birth intervals, rural residence, low level of maternal education and lowest wealth quintile have affected negatively children's chances of survival. Expanding the scope of free vaccination programmes for children, improving screening and disease prevention schemes aimed at children, encouraging breasffeeding, implementing an emergency obstetric care programme, improving the services provided to newborns (a newborn intensive care programme) have brought about a significant decrease in the rate of infant and under-five mortality. The implementation of state and region specific action plans should be necessary to increase the chance of an access to the Continuum of Care for each mother and infant and to surpass MDG4.