A new nanosuspension prepared with wet milling method for oral delivery of highly variable drug Cyclosporine A: development, optimization and in vivo evaluation

Pinar S. G., CANPINAR H., TAN Ç., Celebi N.

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES, vol.171, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 171
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.ejps.2022.106123
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, EMBASE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: Cyclosporine a, Nanosuspension, Top-down technology, Dissolution, Pharmacokinetic, T lymphocyte subsets, PLGA NANOPARTICLES, PROCESS PARAMETERS, DISSOLUTION RATE, BIOAVAILABILITY, VITRO, NANOCRYSTALS, FORMULATION, FOOD, PHARMACOKINETICS, ENHANCEMENT
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Cyclosporine A (CsA) is a cyclic polypeptide, that has been widely used for immunosuppression. This study aims to develop nanosuspension for oral administration of CsA using the wet milling (WM) method one of the top down technologies. The WM method was optimized by studying the effects of critical process parameters for WM on the particle size (PS), particle size distribution (PDI), and zeta potential (ZP) of nanosuspensions using the Design of Experiment (DoE) approach. Nanosuspension was developed using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and in vitro characterization studies were performed. In vitro dissolution and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies were conducted with biorelevant media (fasted and fed state simulated fluids) and fasted and fed states in rats, respectively. In vivo immunological studies were also performed. PS, PDI, and ZP values for nanosuspension were approximately 600 nm, 0.4,-25 mV, respectively. The solubility of CsA was increased by 4.5-folds by nanosuspensions. Dissolution studies showed that nanosuspension had higher dissolution than the commercial product in the FeSSIF medium. The pharmacokinetic study indicated that AUC0(-24) values of CsA nanosuspension were to be 2.09 and 5.51-fold higher than coarse powder in fasted and fed conditions, respectively. Immunological studies were carried out after oral administration of nano suspension for 21 days, the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ was found to be more acceptable than the commercial product. These results demonstrated that nanosuspension is a promising approach for increasing the bioavailability and avoiding the food effect on absorption of CsA which one of the highly variable drugs.