Green synthesis of Au@g-C3N4 nanocomposite using Hyssopus officinalis extract and its sensing application for vortioxetine determination

Khoshnavaz Y., Erk E. E., Li G., Mehmandoust M., ERK N.

Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol.30, no.33, pp.80085-80093, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 30 Issue: 33
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11356-023-28040-8
  • Journal Name: Environmental Science and Pollution Research
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, IBZ Online, ABI/INFORM, Aerospace Database, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, Environment Index, Geobase, MEDLINE, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.80085-80093
  • Keywords: Amplified sensor, Gold nanoparticles, Graphite carbon nitride, Vortioxetine sensing
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Herein, we introduce a stable and green Au@g-C3N4 nanocomposite as a selective electrochemical sensor for vortioxetine (VOR) determination. The electrochemical behavior of VOR on the developed electrode was investigated through cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and chronoamperometry. The Au@g-C3N4 nanocomposite was thoroughly observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Raman spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The Au@g-C3N4 nanocomposite had a higher conductivity and a narrower band gap than pure g-C3N4, causing higher electrochemical activity for VOR detection. Moreover, Au@g-C3N4 on the glassy carbon electrode (Au@g-C3N4/GCE) monitored a low level of VOR with high efficiency and low interference as an environmentally friendly processing approach. Interestingly, the as-fabricated sensor exhibited an ultrahigh selectivity for recognizing VOR with a detection limit (LOD) of 3.2 nM. Furthermore, the developed sensor was applied to determine VOR in pharmaceutical and biological samples, which indicated a high selectivity in the presence of interferences. This study suggests new insights into the phytosynthesis synthesis of nanomaterials with excellent biosensing applications.