Objective: To determine the prevalence and distribution of premature eruption and agenesis of premolars in a sample of Turkish children. Study design: A sample of 1715 patients aged 5 to 11 years was selected. Panoramic radiographs were used to assess premature eruption and agenesis of premolars. Developmental stage of erupted premolars was assessed using Demirjian's method and selecting prematurely erupted premolars on the basis of clinical eruption with a root length less than half of their final expected root lengths. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-square test (p < .05). Results: One hundred fifteen (6.7%) of 1715 patients presented at least one premolar agenesis with no significant sex difference (56 boys, 59 girls). Mandibular second premolars were the most absent teeth. Multiple agenesis of premolars (3.4%) was more common than single agenesis (3.3%). A total of 85 (5.0%) patients (51 boys, 34 girls; no significant sex difference) had at least one prematurely erupted premolar, and maxillary first premolars were most commonly affected. Early erupted premolars were in stage D or E based on Demirjian's dental formation scale. Conclusions: The prevalence of premature eruption and agenesis of premolars in Turkish children were 5.0% and 6.7%, respectively. Both conditions are not uncommon and may highlight the need for early diagnosis to prevent subsequent clinical problems.