We investigated the effects of explosive acoustic trauma on sleep quality and quality of lives (QOLs) of the workers in Ammunition Factory. Forty-one male workers exposed to explosive acoustic trauma in Ammunition Factory 12 years ago constructed the study group (Group 1). Thirty-eight male workers of Ammunition Factory who were not exposed to the explosion, were included into the control group (Group 2). We used the Mini Sleep Questionnaire (MSQ) and SF-36 questionnaire. In workers of the study group who had experienced psychological and sleep problems; hearing loss and acute tinnitus just after explosion; and had higher education levels, some of the sleep and QOL parameters got worse. Workers, adjacent to the explosion site and not used earpluggs during explosion, had more impaired sleep quality results (p < 0.05). We may conclude that acute explosive acoustic trauma may affect negatively some items of sleep quality and quality of the lives of the workers. Workers should be educated to use ear muffs and ear plugs. For post-explosion sleep problems and other psychological problems, psychological support should be given to the workers by the health-team and their families.