Pollutants in the environment are growing as a result of the use of plastic. Our environment and food chain contain plastic particles and other pollutants made of plastic, threatening human health. From this point of view, biodegradable plastic material focuses on building a more sustainable, greener world with a lower impact on the environment. This evaluation should be kept in view of the objectives and priorities for producing a wide variety of biodegradable plastics throughout their entire life cycle. The properties of biodegradable plastics are similar to traditional plastics. Additionally, the greatest benefits of biodegradable polymeric materials are the preservation of fossil fuel resources and the reduction of environmental pollution in the environment of sustainable development. This review summarizes the main synthesis methods and the most common type of biodegradable polymers. Lastly, the biodegradation mechanism of biodegradable polymers is also discussed.