Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is an inflammatory myopathy which causes severe morbidity and high mortality if untreated. In this study, we aimed to define the T-helper cell profile in the muscle biopsies of JDM patients. Muscle biopsies of twenty-six patients (50% female) were included in the study. Immunohistochemical expression of CD3, CD20, CD138, CD68, IL-17, Foxp3, IFN-gamma, IFN-alpha and IL-4 was studied and muscle biopsies were scored using the JDM muscle biopsy scoring tool. Inflammatory cells were in small clusters in perimysium and perivascular area or scattered throughout the endomysium in most biopsies; however in 2 biopsies, lymphoid follicle-like big clusters were observed, and in one, there was a very dense and diffuse inflammatory infiltration nearly destroying all the muscle architecture. Seventy-three per cent of the biopsies had T cells, 88% had B cells, 57% had plasma cells, and all had macrophages. As for T-helper cell subtypes, 80% of the biopsies were Th1 positive, 92% Th17 positive and 30% Treg positive. No IL-4 positive inflammatory cell was detected, and only 2 biopsies showed IFN-alpha positivity. The mean JDM biopsy score was 17.6, meaning moderate to severe muscular involvement. Visual analogue score of the pathologist was strongly correlated with histopathological features. B cells, macrophages, plasma cells and T cells constitute the inflammatory milieu of the JDM muscle biopsies. As for T cells, JDM is a disease mainly related with Th1 and Th17 T-helper cell subtypes and to some extend Treg. Th2 cells are not involved in the pathogenesis.