Longitudinal changes in craniofacial factors among snoring and nonsnoring Bolton-Brush study participants

Nelson S., Cakirer B., Lai Y.

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ORTHODONTICS AND DENTOFACIAL ORTHOPEDICS, vol.123, no.3, pp.338-344, 2003 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier


The extent to which craniofacial risk factors are manifested from childhood in habitual snorers and those with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in craniofacial factors between snorers and nonsnorers from childhood to adulthood. The sample consisted of 80 Bolton-Brush subjects (men, 52%; white, 100%) recalled at adult ages (53-78 years) who had existing prepubertal (age, 4-5 years) and pubertal (age, 12-13 years) records. Snoring was assessed at the adult age through subjective and spousal reports. Cephalometric radiographs were used to characterize 13 craniofacial hard and soft tissue measurements. The t tests revealed that there was a trend (P < .10) for longer hyoid-to-mandibular plane distance at prepubertal and pubertal ages and significant (P < .05) differences at adult recall for snorers. Posterior airway space was significantly smaller for snorers at adult recall. The longitudinal analysis did show a significant change in 9 craniofacial variables over time, but this change was not different between snorers and nonsnorers. We concluded that snorers exhibit a lowered hyoid position from childhood and that longitudinal changes must be explored further with a larger sample.