Since 1965, Turkey has followed an anti-natalist population policy and made significant progress in improving sexual and reproductive health. This paper presents a critical review of the national reproductive health policies and programmes of Turkey and discusses the influence of national and international stakeholders and donors on policy and implementation. While government health services have played the primary role in meeting sexual and reproductive health needs, international donor agencies and national non-governmental and other civil society organisations, especially universities, have played an important complementary role. Major donor agencies have supported many beneficial programmes to improve reproductive health in Turkey, but their agendas have sometimes not been compatible with national objectives and goals, which has caused frustration. The Main conclusion of this review is that countries with clear and strong reproductive health policies can better direct the implementation of international agreements as well as get the most benefit from the support of international donors. (C) 2004 Reproductive Health Matters. All rights reserved.