Ultrasound Imaging for the Cutaneous Nerves of the Extremities and Relevant Entrapment Syndromes: From Anatomy to Clinical Implications


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Chang K., Mezian K., Nanka O., Wu W., Lou Y., Wang J., ...More

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE, vol.7, no.11, 2018 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 7 Issue: 11
  • Publication Date: 2018
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/jcm7110457
  • Journal Name: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED)
  • Keywords: cutaneous nerve, sonography, pain, compression, electromyography, HIGH-RESOLUTION ULTRASOUND, LIMB PERIPHERAL-NERVES, SONOGRAPHIC TRACKING, PICTORIAL ESSAY, BRANCH, FOREARM, VISUALIZATION, NEUROPATHY, DIAGNOSIS, SURGERY
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

Cutaneous nerve entrapment plays an important role in neuropathic pain syndrome. Due to the advancement of ultrasound technology, the cutaneous nerves can be visualized by high-resolution ultrasound. As the cutaneous nerves course superficially in the subcutaneous layer, they are vulnerable to entrapment or collateral damage in traumatic insults. Scanning of the cutaneous nerves is challenging due to fewer anatomic landmarks for referencing. Therefore, the aim of the present article is to summarize the anatomy of the limb cutaneous nerves, to elaborate the scanning techniques, and also to discuss the clinical implications of pertinent entrapment syndromes of the medial brachial cutaneous nerve, intercostobrachial cutaneous nerve, medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve, lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve, posterior antebrachial cutaneous nerve, superficial branch of the radial nerve, dorsal cutaneous branch of the ulnar nerve, palmar cutaneous branch of the median nerve, anterior femoral cutaneous nerve, posterior femoral cutaneous nerve, lateral femoral cutaneous nerve, sural nerve, and saphenous nerve.