Background: We assessed the efficacy and toxicity of ifosfamide and doxorubicin combination chemotherapy (CT) regimen retrospectively in Turkish patients with recurrent or metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Methods: A total of thirty patients who had received cisplatin based chemotherapy/chemoradiotherapy as a primary treatment received ifosfamide 2500 mg/m(2) days 1-3, mesna 2500 mg/m(2) days 1-3, doxorubicin 60 mg/m(2) day 1 (IMA), repeated every 21 days. Eligible patients had ECOG PS< 2, measurable recurrent or metastatic disease, with adequate renal, hepatic and hematologic functions. Results: Median age was 47 (min-max; 17-60). Twenty six (86.7 %) were male. Median cycles of chemotherapy for each patient were 2 (range: 1-6). Twenty patients were evaluable for toxicity and response. No patient achieved complete response, with nine partial responses for a response rate of 30.0% in evaluable patients. Stable disease, and disease progression were observed in five (16.7%) and six (20.0%) patients, respectively. Clinical benefit was 46.7%. Median time to progression was 4.0 months. Six patients had neutropenic fever after IMA regimen and there were one treatment-related death due to tumor lysis syndrome in first cycle of the CT. No cardiotoxicity was observed after CT and treatments were generally well tolerated. Conclusion: Ifosfomide and doxorubicin combination is an effective regimen for patients with recurrent and metastatic NPC. For NPC patients demonstrating failure of cisplatin based regimens, this CT combination may be considered as salvage therapy.