Seizures in patients with kidney diseases: a neglected problem?

Gungor O., Aydin Z., Inci A., Oguz E. G., ARICI M.

Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association, vol.38, no.2, pp.291-299, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier


© The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the ERA.Nephrologists may encounter many systemic problems in their patients, including involvement of the neurological system and the development of seizures. Seizures are defined as abnormal neurological functions that cause overstimulation of neurons in the cerebral cortex or limbic system. Seizures may be focal or generalized depending on their origin and may have tonic, clonic, tonic-clonic or myoclonic character depending on the level of involvement of the motor movements. Patients with kidney disease may develop seizures due to etiologies seen in the general population (such as intracranial bleeding, cerebrovascular events, tumors, infections and intoxications) or due to kidney-related etiologies (such as uremic encephalopathy, dialysis disequilibrium syndrome and hyponatremia). Management of seizures in kidney patients is challenging for proper determination of the type and dosage of antiepileptic drugs due to varying renal clearances. This review covers the major causes of new-onset seizures in patients with acute kidney injury, electrolyte imbalances, chronic kidney disease, dialysis, renal transplantation or hypertension, and the available management approaches.