Between Enlightened Exclusion and Conscientious Inclusion: Tolerating the Muslims in Germany


JOURNAL OF MUSLIM MINORITY AFFAIRS, vol.29, no.1, pp.27-41, 2009 (ESCI) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 29 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2009
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/13602000902726749
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, IBZ Online, International Bibliography of Social Sciences, American History and Life, Arab World Research Source, ATLA Religion Database, Historical Abstracts, Index Islamicus, MLA - Modern Language Association Database, PAIS International, Political Science Complete, Public Affairs Index, Religion and Philosophy Collection, Social services abstracts, Sociological abstracts, Worldwide Political Science Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.27-41
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


The purpose of this article is to explore the nature of tolerance that is exhibited towards Muslims in Germany today. It is possible to make a two-fold distinction in liberal tolerance between exclusive and inclusive modes. While, a theory of toleration that recommends toleration on the basis of "autonomy" would qualify as an exclusive one, a theory that recommends extending toleration on the basis of "freedom of conscience" would be an inclusive one. We argue that it is the autonomy-based toleration that is dominant in contemporary Germany. We display the nature of exclusive tolerance in Germany by focusing on the discussion of public policies that are targeting Muslims and the experience of Muslim women in Germany. The public policies that we focus on are concerned with the citizenship/naturalization, and immigration laws. The experience of Muslim women is uncovered through a field research based on semi-structured in-depth interviews.