Psychological well-being of healthcare workers during COVID-19: Relationship with risk perception and fear in the context of health belief model

YAVUZ C. I., YILDIZ M. E., Sari Ö. Y., B. Uçgun A., ALTINTAŞ K. H.

Archives of Environmental and Occupational Health, vol.78, no.9-10, pp.483-494, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 78 Issue: 9-10
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/19338244.2024.2303995
  • Journal Name: Archives of Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, Environment Index, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.483-494
  • Keywords: COVID-19, healthcare workers, preparedness, psychological well-being, risk perception
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


This study aimed to evaluate the extent of fear and risk perception related to COVID-19 and their impact on the psychological well-being of healthcare workers. Data were gathered through an online survey, incorporating questions about risk perception utilizing the health belief model, the Fear of COVID-19 Scale, and the General Health Questionnaire-12. A total of 364 HCWs participated in the survey, with 94% of participants identified as being in the high-risk category for mental disorders based on their General Health Questionnaire scores. The assessment of COVID-19-related risk perception within the Health Belief Model demonstrated significant correlations between perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived barriers, and self-efficacy with both the fear scale and General Health Questionnaire scores. Linear regression was employed to identify factors influencing General Health Questionnaire scores, revealing that risk perception, Fear of COVID-19 scores, marital status, and perceived health were significantly associated with General Health Questionnaire scores. These findings underscore the importance of monitoring the psychological well-being of healthcare workers throughout all stages of pandemic preparedness and response.