Change of Common Spaces from Construction to Settlement: A Research on Housing Cooperatives Constructed in Ankara Between 1950-1980


Balaban Varol E., Cankiz Elibol G.

MEGARON, vol.16, no.3, pp.488-507, 2021 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 16 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.14744/megaron.2021.56198
  • Journal Name: MEGARON
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.488-507
  • Keywords: Ankara, common space, housing cooperatives

Abstract

Housing cooperatives, one of the forms of housing production from 1950 to 1980, differ from other forms of apartment-type housing in some aspects. Cooperative housings, with the principle of association, cover the housing acquirement processes for a community that comes together to meet the need for housing. This process is based on the association and similar preferences of all dwelling owners, regarding the production methods of cooperative houses and the housing acquisition processes, besides their architectural design and the housing characteristics. Large common areas and spaces offered by the architects in the cooperative housing areas built in Ankara between 1950 and 1980 enabled the owners of dwellings to come together and become stakeholders of spaces and time. Apartment buildings, which are the primary forms of housing production of the period, are seen as quick and simple solutions to housing needs and agents detaching the individual from the social context; while cooperative housings built in large settlements offer the user something beyond housing. Dwelling owners residing in cooperative housings have the experience of being a part of a community through its architectural design based on the principle of 'common way of life In this context, the study examines the common spaces of cooperative housings built in Ankara between 1950 and 1980 and the current uses of these common spaces. The main aim of the study is to compare and analyze the common spaces designed by the architects and the current use of common spaces, and to try to understand the impact of the architectural design that offers large common spaces on the tendencies of the residents of the compound to use the common spaces. For this purpose, the role of architectural planning on social relations can also be questioned in the study. Since the research will take place through determined residential settlements, the study is designed as a case study. The sample of the study was selected using the criterion sample method among the types of purposive sampling, from cooperative structures built in Ankara between 1950 and 1980. The scope of the study was limited to 10 settlements that meet the criteria and the common places belonging to these settlements. During the research process, firstly the projects belonging to 10 settlements were accessed from the archives of the relevant institutions. Then, the common spaces designed by the architects were analyzed through the projects. In order to determine the current uses of the common areas identified in the projects of the settlements, the areas were marked on the project by going to the settlements. In this way, the common areas designed by the architect and the common areas used today were compared and the differences between them were mapped through projects. In the study with mapping, it was questioned that which common areas were designed by the architect; what changes took place in these areas that the user experiences today, and whether there were social areas that the users subsequently created together, unlike what the architect planned.