The neurologic manifestations of patients with phenylketonuria treated at different ages are illustrated in this series of 146 cases, including 9 sib pairs. In addition to well-known findings such as mental retardation, autistic features, microcephaly, and tremor, motor retardation was common and responded promptly to dietary treatment. Hypotonia and diminished reflexes were more frequent findings than hypertonia. Four sib pairs showed divergent features, such as the later-treated sibling having higher function than the early-treated one. Because siblings have a similar genotype and similar environmental and dietary conditions, this observation can be explained by differences in phenylalanine transport to the brain or additional metabolic or perinatal factors influencing the neurologic outcome.