Neuropathy, one of the major reasons of morbidity in diabetes mellitus (DM), is associated with prediabetic conditions as well as DM. The present study aims to compare phrenic and peripheral nerves in prediabetic, diabetic patients and healthy controls. A total of 37 diabetic, 40 prediabetic patients and 18 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. All subjects underwent conventional sensory and motor nerve conduction studies. Bilateral phrenic and peripheric nerve conduction studies were performed. In both right and left phrenic nerves, the amplitudes were lower in prediabetic and diabetic patients than control subjects, respectively (p: 0.005 and p: 0.001). Both of the phrenic nerve conductions were altered similarly. The results of our study demonstrate that phrenic nerves are affected like peripheric nerves in prediabetic and diabetic patients. We suggest reminding phrenic neuropathy in newly onset respiratory failure in diabetic and prediabetic patients.