Modeling Shallow Landslide Runout Distance in Eocene Flysch Facies Using Empirical–Statistical Models (Western Black Sea Region of Türkiye)

Komu M. P., Nefeslioglu H. A., GÖKÇEOĞLU C.

ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, vol.13, no.3, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 13 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/ijgi13030084
  • Journal Name: ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, CAB Abstracts, INSPEC, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: empirical model, Eocene flysch facies, machine learning, RCP 4.5, RCP 8.5, runout distance, shallow landslide
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Uncertainties related to runout distances in shallow landslide analyses may not only affect lives but may also result in economic losses. Owing to the increase in shallow landslides, which are especially triggered by heavy rainfall, runout distances have been investigated to decipher whether applications of a functional runout distance are feasible. This paper aims to give insights into the modeling of the shallow landslide runout probability in Eocene flysch facies in the Western Black Sea region of Türkiye. There are two main stages in this study—which are dominated by empirical models, the detection of initiation points, and propagation—which help us to understand and visualize the possible runout distances in the study area. Shallow landslide initiation point determination using machine learning has a critical role in the ordered tasks in this study. Modified Holmgren and simplified friction-limited model (SFLM) parameters were applied to provide a good approximation of runout distances during the propagation stage using Flow-R software. The empirical model parameters suggested for debris flows and shallow landslides were investigated comparatively. The runout distance models had approximately the same performance depending on the debris flow and shallow landslide parameters. While the impacted total runout areas for the debris flow parameters were predicted to amount to approximately 146 km2, the impacted total runout areas for the shallow landslide parameters were estimated to be about 101 km2. Considering the inclusion of the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 precipitation scenarios in the analyses, this also shows that the shallow landslide and debris flow runout distance impact areas will decrease. The investigation of runout distance analyses and the inclusion of the RCP scenarios in the runout analyses are highly intriguing for landslide researchers.