An Assessment on Permeability and Grout Take of Limestone: A Case Study at Mut Dam, Karaman, Turkey

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WATER, vol.11, no.12, 2019 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 11 Issue: 12
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/w11122649
  • Journal Name: WATER
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


The main purposes of the present study are to evaluate pilot grouting and to develop regression equations for prediction of grout intake. There are no permeability problems with the sandstone-siltstone-claystone alternations and basement clayey limestone at the dam site. Karstic limestone block is permeable due to karstification and heavy discontinuities. For the purpose of the study, Q system, geological strength index (GSI), secondary permeability index (SPI), joint spacing (JSP), joint apertures (Ap), Lugeon (Lu), and the permeability coefficient (k) were determined. Karstic limestone block rock mass properties correlated with grouting material amount. A series of simple and multiple nonlinear regression analyses was performed between grout take material amount (Gt) and average values of these rock mass properties. Significant determination coefficients were determined. Prediction capacity of the empirical equations were also examined with root mean square error (RMSE), values account for (VAF), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), and prediction error evaluations. Considering simple regression analyses, the equation derived with Gt-SPI gives the best performance. The best prediction is determined with the equation derived with rock quality designation values (RQD), SPI, and joint aperture as input parameters with the multiple nonlinear regression analysis, in addition to this, other empirical equations also provide acceptable results.