Radiomics in differential diagnosis of Wilms tumor and neuroblastoma with adrenal location in children

Koska I. O., ÖZCAN H. N., Tan A. A., BEYDOĞAN B., Ozer G., OĞUZ B., ...More

European Radiology, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00330-024-10589-8
  • Journal Name: European Radiology
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE
  • Keywords: Abdomen, Computed tomography, Machine learning, Neuroblastoma, Wilms tumor
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Objectives: Machine learning methods can be applied successfully to various medical imaging tasks. Our aim with this study was to build a robust classifier using radiomics and clinical data for preoperative diagnosis of Wilms tumor (WT) or neuroblastoma (NB) in pediatric abdominal CT. Material and methods: This is a single-center retrospective study approved by the Institutional Ethical Board. CT scans of consecutive patients diagnosed with WT or NB admitted to our hospital from January 2005 to December 2021 were evaluated. Three distinct datasets based on clinical centers and CT machines were curated. Robust, non-redundant, high variance, and relevant radiomics features were selected using data science methods. Clinically relevant variables were integrated into the final model. Dice score for similarity of tumor ROI, Cohen’s kappa for interobserver agreement among observers, and AUC for model selection were used. Results: A total of 147 patients, including 90 WT (mean age 34.78 SD: 22.06 months; 43 male) and 57 NB (mean age 23.77 SD:22.56 months; 31 male), were analyzed. After binarization at 24 months cut-off, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups for age (p =.07) and gender (p =.54). CT clinic radiomics combined model achieved an F1 score of 0.94, 0.93 accuracy, and an AUC 0.96. Conclusion: In conclusion, the CT-based clinic-radiologic-radiomics combined model could noninvasively predict WT or NB preoperatively. Notably, that model correctly predicted two patients, which none of the radiologists could correctly predict. This model may serve as a noninvasive preoperative predictor of NB/WT differentiation in CT, which should be further validated in large prospective models. Clinical relevance statement: CT-based clinic-radiologic-radiomics combined model could noninvasively predict Wilms tumor or neuroblastoma preoperatively. Key Points: • CT radiomics features can predict Wilms tumor or neuroblastoma from abdominal CT preoperatively. • Integrating clinic variables may further improve the performance of the model. • The performance of the combined model is equal to or greater than human readers, depending on the lesion size.