This study was conducted to assess the blood boron levels (BBL) in prepubertal children in the West and Central Anatolia regions of Turkey and its relationship with chosen anthropometric measurements. A multistage sampling design that combined multicluster (West Anatolia vs. Central Anatolia regions and rural vs. urban residents) and simple random sampling methods were used for the sample selection. BBL was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Weight, height, mid-arm circumference, and triceps skinfold thickness were measured. Z-scores for weight-for-age, height-for-age, and body mass index (BMI)-for-age were calculated. Furthermore, arm-muscle area, arm-fat area, and fat percentage were measured. This study enrolled 2126 children, of whom 50.7% were male. The mean age was 8.9 years. The mean concentration of BBL was 15.6 mu g/L (interquartile range: 11.7-19.6 mu g/L). Children in urban areas had significantly higher BBL than those in rural areas (17.2 +/- 5.5 vs. 11.9 +/- 4.6 mu g/L; p<.001). Children in the West Anatolia region had significantly lower BBL than those in the Central Anatolia region (14.5 +/- 5.9 mu g/L vs. 17.8 +/- 5.0 mu g/L; p<.001). BBL was not affected by maternal education, occupation, sex, and anemia. BBL was found to be significantly lower in children with low BMI, low triceps skinfold thickness, low arm fat area, and low-fat percentage. Change in BBL was associated with the region and residence in Turkey. BBL differed between well nourished and malnourished children. Further studies are needed to evaluate the relationship between anthropometry and BBL.