A raw material grinding circuit was modeled using plant data. Samples were collected from around the circuit and, following a crash stop, from inside the mill. The size distributions of the samples were determined down to a few microns. Using the data from inside the mill a modeling approach, based on perfect mixing, was developed. The modelling approach implicitly assumes that the mixture of feed materials broken is homogenous from the breakage point of view. The air classification around the circuit was modeled using the efficiency curve approach. In order to measure the success of the method the circuit performance was predicted by simulation studies while it was operating at different conditions. The results were then compared with the measured data. It is concluded that modeling gives a useful quantitative indication of what may occur in fully air swept mills. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.