Determining the predictors of nursing students' xenophobic tendency toward refugees

Karadas M. M., Bilgin A., Sahan F., ÖZDEMİR L.

Nurse Education Today, vol.122, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 122
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.nedt.2023.105722
  • Journal Name: Nurse Education Today
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, ASSIA, CINAHL, EBSCO Education Source, Education Abstracts, Educational research abstracts (ERA), EMBASE, MEDLINE, DIALNET
  • Keywords: Xenophobia, Ethnocentrism, Intergroup social contact, Nursing students
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Background: Xenophobia is an important role in affecting the professional development of nursing students and the health of refugees. However, factors contributing to xenophobia levels in nursing students remain undetermined. Aim: To determine the predictors and levels of xenophobia in nursing students toward refugees. Method: Our cross-sectional descriptive study included nursing students (n = 265) from Turkey. Data were collected using the “Participant Information Form”, “Xenophobia Scale”, “Ethnocentrism Scale”, and “Intergroup Social Contact Scale”. Structural equation modeling and regression analysis were used for data analysis. Results: 86.0 % of the participants were female and students' xenophobia scale mean score was 50.89 (SD = 9.59) at a high level. Nursing students living in the city center showed a higher level of xenophobia than those living in the village/town (β = 3.327). Nursing students with an immigrant family member displayed a lower level of xenophobia than those who did not (β = 3.461). Both ethnocentrism and intergroup social contact exerted a direct effect on xenophobia. Ethnocentrism (β = 0.193, p < 0.001) was found to be a positive predictor of xenophobia levels in students. Intergroup social contact (β = −0.400, p < 0.001) was found to be a negative predictor of xenophobic levels in students. Conclusion: This study showed that ethnocentrism and intergroup social contact exerted direct effects on the xenophobic levels in nursing students. Our study also revealed that living in the city center and having an immigrant family member affected the level of xenophobia in such a sample.