This study attempts to examine the organizational and administrative structure of the Turkish education system from a historical perspective. In the study, the Turkish education system is analyzed in two different historical eras, the centralization and decentralization eras. It is seen that the organizational and administrative centralization process was launched with the reforms conducted in the Ottoman State in 1839. The reforms gained pace during the Republican Administration and became entrenched after the Second World War. Nevertheless, it was realized that the centralization model, which dominated education administration, became subject to criticisms during the mid-70s due to the crisis of the "welfare regime". At the end of the study, it is seen that the neo-liberal policies-oriented restructuring process tended to replace the centralization model with the decentralization model. The study concludes that the said tendency has gradually evolved to be the prevailing view.