Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in gynecological cancers is an approach that is shown to have positive effects on survival. It increases the rate of resectability in ovarian and cervical cancers and thus contributes to survival. However, there are studies reporting that despite increasing operability, the approach does not make any changes in terms of survival. Nevertheless, no negative effects have been reported in studies conducted till today. Prospective and randomized well-designed studies that encompass a high number of cases and parameters, including cost-effectiveness, are needed in both types of cancers. Until the results of such studies are obtained, neoadjuvant chemotherapy may be taken into consideration as an alternative when conventional methods do not suffice. The number of studies concerning endometrial, vulvar and vaginal cancers are few in the area of neoadjuvant chemotherapy.