This literature review focuses on the biology and ecology of Juniperus drupacea. Within the context of the series ‘Our Forest Trees’ by the Institute of Dendrology PAS at Kórnik, the following key topics are discussed: taxonomy with paleo-records, morphology, anatomy, geographical distribution, ecology (including habitat, communities, response to biotic factors and the environment, and phenology), disease, and conservation. Juniperus drupacea, also known as the Syrian juniper, is a dioecious evergreen gymnosperm found primarily in two distribution centers: one in the southern Peloponnese in Europe and the other in the mountains along the Mediterranean Sea in Southwest Asia. The populations from Europe and Asia differ genetically, biochemically, and morphologically. Juniperus drupacea is a medium-sized tree occurring in mountains, predominantly at elevations of 800–1400 m, on basic to moderately alkaline soils and even on calcareous rock. It is a component of fir, pine, cedar, and sometimes also juniper forest, rarely entering maquis. As with other junipers, it is a light-demanding, moderately frost-and drought-resistant, sometimes acting as an invader of abandoned fields and pastures. It is rarely grazed by goats. Its low palatability is a result of the high content of volatile oils in the needles and cones. The volatile oils have been extensively used in folk medicine and have been investigated for new medicinal uses. The species is rare, endangered and protected in Greece, parts of Turkey and Lebanon. Its ecological niche could potentially be reduced by global climate change.