Formation of advanced glycation endproducts in foods during cooking process and underlying mechanisms: a comprehensive review of experimental studies


İNAN EROĞLU E. , AYAZ A. , BÜYÜKTUNCER DEMİREL Z.

NUTRITION RESEARCH REVIEWS, vol.33, no.1, pp.77-89, 2020 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 33 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1017/s0954422419000209
  • Title of Journal : NUTRITION RESEARCH REVIEWS
  • Page Numbers: pp.77-89

Abstract

Advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) are a group of complex and heterogeneous molecules, sharing some common characteristics such as covalent cross-link formation among proteins, the effect of transforming the colour of food products into yellow-brown colours and fluorescence formation. AGE are linked to many diseases including diabetes, renal diseases, CVD, liver diseases, neuro-degenerative and eye disorders, female reproductive dysfunction, and even cancer. AGE are formed endogenously but are also provided from exogenous sources including diet and tobacco. Western diet, rich in processed and/or heat-treated foods, fat and sugar, increases the exposure to AGE. The foods that contain high levels of fat and protein are generally rich in terms of AGE, and are also prone to AGE formation during cooking compared with carbohydrate-rich foods such as vegetables, fruits, legumes and whole grains. The present article aimed to review the literature about the effects of different cooking methods and conditions on the AGE content of food and AGE formation mechanisms using a comprehensive approach.