Purpose This study investigated the levels of interleukin (IL)-8, IL-10, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the aqueous humor (AqH) of patients with Behcet's uveitis (BU) and Fuchs' uveitis syndrome (FUS) during an inactive period and compared these levels with those in the AqH of noninflammatory healthy control subjects. Methods This prospective and case-control study included 33 patients (16 patients with BU and 17 patients with FUS) and 35 control subjects. IL-8, IL-10, and VEGF levels in the AqH were quantified by performing sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the cytokine levels in the different groups, and statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results IL-8 levels were significantly higher in the AqH of patients with BU and FUS than in the AqH of control subjects (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). IL-10 levels were significantly lower in the AqH of patients with BU than in the AqH of patients with FUS and of control subjects (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Although VEGF levels were higher in the AqH of patients with FUS than in the AqH of patients with BU and of control subjects, the difference was significant only between patients with FUS and control subjects (p < 0.001). Conclusions We observed a significant decrease in IL-10 levels in the AqH of patients with BU and a significant increase in VEGF levels in the AqH of patients with FUS compared to controls. IL-8 and VEGF levels showed no significant difference among uveitis patients.