It is important to define the aetiology of increased levels of androgens in women. Ovarian stromal hyperplasia (OSH) and ovarian hyperthecosis (OHT) are non-neoplastic pathologies. They show the excess of androgen production and have a wide clinical range like hirsutism, virilisation, abnormal menses, obesity, hypertension and insulin resistance. Ovarian stromal hyperplasia and hyperthecosis are commonly seen in postmenopausal women and generally involve both ovaries. Laboratory testing is the gateway; testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) are the first hormones that should be measured. OSH and OHT could also be a reason for endometrial malignancy by unopposed oestrogenic status. Hyperthecosis must be differentiated from several other diseases, especially malignant conditions, and the treatment for postmenopausal women should be bilateral oophorectomy.