This study had two aims, one of which was to reflect the efficiencies of all institutions providing primary healthcare in Turkey between the years of 2012-2014 at the level of provinces. The second aim was to identify the factors that affect the efficiency scores. Two-stage data envelopment analysis method was utilized accordingly. The findings of the study showed that the number of provinces providing primary healthcare efficiently was found as 20 for 2012, 17 for 2013 and 24 for 2014. The study also showed that the efficiency scores of the provinces in primary healthcare changed according to income, apart from the input and output variables. According to the results of the study, it was found that most of the provinces are inefficient. In order to improve this, attention should be paid to decreasing inputs and infant mortality rate and increasing the average number of follow-up per infant, especially in provinces where income per capita is low. In addition, it is thought that the results of this study will provide important information to healthcare administrators and policy makers regarding primary care, which has an important role in preventing outbreaks (for example COVID-19), monitoring diseases, protecting and promoting health.