Chaenorhinum gerense is an eastern Mediterranean species with rare distribution and a large variety in plant and seed morphology. In this study, the accuracy of the taxonomic status of this species, which was initially reported by P.H. Davis as C. rubrifolium from south eastern Turkey, is discussed and the typical representatives of C. rubrifolium were collected for the first time for Turkey from Mugla province, southwestern Anatolia. C. gerense is closely related to the C. rubrifolium, from which it differs by having a small and cream corolla with red blotch, capsule as long as or smaller 1/2-calyx teeth and triangular or rectangular blunt crest on seed. Detailed descriptions and identification keys for these two taxa are provided.