Aging versus youth: Endocrine aspects of vulnerability for COVID-19

Oguz S. H. , KOCA M. , YILDIZ O. B.

REVIEWS IN ENDOCRINE & METABOLIC DISORDERS, 2021 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier identifier

  • Yayın Türü: Makale / Tam Makale
  • Cilt numarası:
  • Basım Tarihi: 2021
  • Doi Numarası: 10.1007/s11154-021-09656-y


Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized with a wide range of clinical presentations from asymptomatic to severe disease. In patients with severe disease, the main causes of mortality have been acute respiratory distress syndrome, cytokine storm and thrombotic events. Although all factors that may be associated with disease severity are not yet clear, older age remains a leading risk factor. While age-related immune changes may be at the bottom of severe course of COVID-19, age-related hormonal changes have considerable importance due to their interactions with these immune alterations, and also with endothelial dysfunction and comorbid cardiometabolic disorders. This review aims to provide the current scientific evidence on the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying the pathway to severe COVID-19, from a collaborative perspective of age-related immune and hormonal changes together, in accordance with the clinical knowledge acquired thus far.