In this study, low pressure water/O-2 plasma treatment was performed in order to obtain COOH functionalities on the surface of poly-E-caprolactone (PCL) membranes as well as non-woven polyester fabric (NWPF) discs. The plasma treatments were performed in a cylindrical, capacitively coupled RF-plasma-reactor and then following steps were performed: in situ (oxalyl chloride vapors) gas/solid reaction to convert OH functionalities into -COCl groups; and hydrolysis under open laboratory conditions using air moisture for final COOH functionalities. COOH and OH functionalities on modified surfaces were detected quantitatively by using fluorescent labeling technique and an UVX 300G sensor. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) was used to evaluate the relative surface atomic compositions and the carbon and oxygen linkages located in non-equivalent atomic positions of untreated and modified surfaces. Atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis showed that nanoscale features of the PCL surfaces are dramatically changed during the surface treatments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results indicated the changes in the relatively smooth appearance of the untreated NWPF discs after the plasma treatment. Periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts were used in cell culture studies. Cell culture results showed that plasma treated PCL membranes and NWPF discs were favorable for the PDL cell spreading, growth and viability due to the presence of functional groups and/or nanotopographies on their surfaces.