The familial, physical, sociocultural, psychological, and economic changes experienced by older adults are known to scale up the risk of self-neglect and the level of loneliness. This study aims to determine the factors affecting the risk of self-neglect and loneliness levels of individuals aged 65 and over. The study group consists of 237 individuals living in Ankara and Kirikkale provinces of Turkey. Pearson Correlation Test was used to determine the relationship between the sub-dimensions of the scales and Linear Regression was used to determine the effect of independent variables on dependent variables. The results of the study revealed that the participating older adults had a low risk of self-neglect and an acceptable level of loneliness. A moderate positive correlation was found between the ‘Elder Self-Neglect Scale (ESN)’ and the ‘Loneliness Scale for Elderly (LSE).’ Furthermore, it was concluded that being middle-aged (74–84 years of age) and Social Network, Physical Health, Sanity (personal endangerment and mental health) sub-dimensions of Elder Self-Neglect Scale increased the loneliness level of individuals, whereas having four or more children in total was found to be a factor decreasing the level of loneliness. It was further concluded that Social Loneliness and Emotional Loneliness sub-dimensions increased the risk of self-neglect of the participants, while a total monthly income above 3001 TL decreased it. It is important to develop protective social policies for the elderly and to raise awareness of all segments of the society through training programs aiming to prevent self-neglect of the older adults and to reduce their loneliness levels.