The aim of this study was to develop simple cellulose nanocomposites that can interfere with the quorum sensing (QS)-regulated physiological process of bacteria, which will provide a sustainable and inexpensive solution to the serious challenges caused by bacterial infections in various products like food packaging or biomedical materials. Three cellulose nanocomposites with 1-5 w% octadecylaminemodified montmorillonite (ODA-MMT) were prepared by regeneration of cellulose from ionic liquid solutions in the presence of ODA-MMT suspension. Structural characterization of the nanocomposites showed that the ODA-MMT can be exfoliated or intercalated, depending on the load level of the nanofiller. Thermal gravimetric analysis showed that the incorporation of ODA-MMT nanofiller can improve the thermal stability of the nanocomposites compared with regenerated cellulose. Evaluation of the anti-QS effect against a pigment-producing bacteria C. violaceum CV026 by disc diffusion assay and flask incubation assay revealed that the QS-regulated violacein pigment production was significantly inhibited by the cellulose nanocomposites without interfering the bacterial vitality. Interestingly, the nanocomposite with the lowest load of ODA-MMT exhibited the most significant anti-QS effect, which may be correlated to the exfoliation of nanofillers. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the anti-QS effect of cellulose nanocomposites without the addition of any small molecular agents. Such inexpensive and nontoxic biomaterials will thus have great potential in the development of new cellulosic materials that can effectively prevent the formation of harmful biofilms.