Meningitis Due to Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 24B in a Patient with Cochlear Implant Previously Vaccinated with the Pneumococcal Vaccine

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MIKROBIYOLOJI BULTENI, vol.53, no.4, pp.451-456, 2019 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 53 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.5578/mb.68490
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.451-456
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of bacterial meningitis in children. It can progress and carries a serious risk of mortality and morbidity despite effective treatment. Cochlear implantation is a fairly successful procedure for restoring hearing in cases of sensorineural hearing loss. Moreover, patients with cochlear implants are at increased risk of contracting pneumococcal meningitis compared to the general population. The development of meningitis is associated with pathogens in the middle ear that contaminate the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), as a result of congenital anomalies in the cochlea, and the cochlear implant. A 4-year-old girl presented to our clinic with fever, vomiting, and weakness. A physical examination showed an axillary temperature of 38.3 degrees C, heart rate of 134/min, respiration rate of 50 breaths/minute, and arterial blood pressure of 120/88 mmHg. The patient also had a neck stiffness and her Kernig and Brudzinski signs were positive. It was discovered that the patient had undergone cochlear implantation approximately five months prior due to bilateral congenital sensorineural hearing loss. She had also received the Haemophilus influenzae type b and PCV-13 vaccines in line with the national immunization calendar. Her laboratory findings showed a leukocyte count of 21.900/mm(3) (neutrophils 90% and lymphocytes 10%) and her procalcitonin level was 1.22 ng/ml. An uncountable number of neutrophils was identified in her cerebrospinal fluid, which led to the initial diagnosis of meningitis. There was also 1 mg/dl of glucose (blood glucose, 102 mg/dl) and 706 mg/dl of protein in her cerebrospinal fluid. Empirically, vancomycin (60 mg/kg/day) and ceftriaxone (100 mg/kg/day) were started. Following 5 days of antibiotic treatment, penicillin-susceptible S.pneumoniae was yielded in her CSF culture and identified as serotype 24B. S.pneumoniae with the same antibiotic sensitivity was also identified in her blood culture. Since rhinorrhea was observed on day 16 of hospitalization, she underwent an operation to repair the fistula tract. A computerized tomography cranial scan was performed after the development of acute mental fog at postoperative day 3 and showed brain edema and a thrombus in the right middle cerebral artery. The patient died on day 42 of hospitalization due to multiple organ failure. To our knowledge, this is the first case of meningitis reported in our country associated with S.pneumoniae serotype 24B in a patient with a cochlear implant. While there has been a decrease in the prevalence of invasive pneumococcal disease with routine administration of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, a relative increase has been observed in its non-vaccine serotypes. This is relevant not only to patients with more risk factors, such as a cochlear implant, but also those who are at lower risk for pneumococcal infection.