The role of centre and country factors on process and outcome indicators in critically ill patients with hospital-acquired bloodstream infections

Buetti N., Tabah A., Setti N., Ruckly S., Barbier F., AKOVA M., ...More

Intensive Care Medicine, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00134-024-07348-0
  • Journal Name: Intensive Care Medicine
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, EMBASE
  • Keywords: Bacteraemia, Centre, Hospital-acquired bloodstream infections, Outcome indicator, Process indicator
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between centre/country-based factors and two important process and outcome indicators in patients with hospital-acquired bloodstream infections (HABSI). Methods: We used data on HABSI from the prospective EUROBACT-2 study to evaluate the associations between centre/country factors on a process or an outcome indicator: adequacy of antimicrobial therapy within the first 24 h or 28-day mortality, respectively. Mixed logistical models with clustering by centre identified factors associated with both indicators. Results: Two thousand two hundred nine patients from two hundred one intensive care units (ICUs) were included in forty-seven countries. Overall, 51% (n = 1128) of patients received an adequate antimicrobial therapy and the 28-day mortality was 38% (n = 839). The availability of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) for aminoglycosides everyday [odds ratio (OR) 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03–2.14] or within a few hours (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.34–2.38), surveillance cultures for multidrug-resistant organism carriage performed weekly (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.09–1.93), and increasing Human Development Index (HDI) values were associated with adequate antimicrobial therapy. The presence of intermediate care beds (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.47–0.84), TDM for aminoglycoside available everyday (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.44–1.00) or within a few hours (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.37–0.70), 24/7 consultation of clinical pharmacists (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.47–0.95), percentage of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) between 10% and 25% in the ICU (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.00–2.80), and decreasing HDI values were associated with 28-day mortality. Conclusion: Centre/country factors should be targeted for future interventions to improve management strategies and outcome of HABSI in ICU patients.