The incidence of Candida dubliniensis in immunocomprimised patients in Turkey has not yet been determined. In this study the presence of C. dubliniensis in oral rinse samples of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients and healthy controls were investigated. Phenotypic tests like inability of growth at 45 degrees C, colony formation on Staib agar, intracellular beta--D-glucosidase activity, carbohydrate assimilation profiles and polymerase chain reaction with species-specific primers (DUBF and DUBR) were carried out for differentiation of C. dubliniensis. Of the 35 patients, four (11.4%) had C.dubliniensis in their oral cavity. Antifungal susceptibility testing of these C. dubliniensis isolates showed fluconazole MICs ranging from < 0.06 to 32 mu g ml(-1) and amphotericin B from < 0.06 to 0.25 mu g ml(-1). One isolate was dose-dependently susceptible to fluconazole (32 mu g ml(-1)). This study demonstrates C. dubliniensis in HIV-positive patients from Turkey.