Do Hemodialysis Patients Need Immune Boosting with Vitamin, Mineral, and Probiotic Supplementation during COVID-19 Pandemic?

Gungor O., Ulu S., Hasbal N. B., Onan E., Turgut D., ARICI M.

TURKISH JOURNAL OF NEPHROLOGY, vol.30, no.4, pp.326-332, 2021 (ESCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 30 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.5152/turkjnephrol.2021.21143
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Scopus, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.326-332
  • Keywords: Coronavirus 19, hemodialysis, infection, vitamin, zinc, probiotic, CHRONIC KIDNEY-DISEASE, C SUPPLEMENTATION, DIALYSIS PATIENTS, INDUCTION, SYSTEM, GUT
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been accepted as a global pandemic, and poses a greater risk to the elderly and those with comorbidities. Comorbid diseases (particularly end-stage kidney disease with hemodialysis) and impaired immunity place patients in the high-risk group for COVID-19. In recent studies, it was also mentioned that exaggerated inflammation and a cytokine storm were the underlying causes related to the high mortality in COVID-19 patients. Currently, treatment modalities to balance the immune system of such vulnerable patient groups are essential, to protect them from the disease. Several vitamins (like vitamins C, D, and E), trace elements like zinc, and probiotics have been proposed as immune boosters to protect and combat infectious conditions. It is well known that these vitamins and elements are insufficient in hemodialysis patients. In this review, we aimed to evaluate the immune-boosting mechanisms of vitamins C, D, E, zinc, and probiotics, the studies related to their beneficial effects against infections, and their possible benefits for hemodialysis patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.