Phase angle is associated with frailty in community-dwelling older adults


Nutrition, vol.116, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 116
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.nut.2023.112157
  • Journal Name: Nutrition
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: Bioelectrical impedance analysis, Frailty, Older adult, Phase angle
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Objectives: Frailty is a geriatric syndrome associated with adverse outcomes. Malnutrition and sarcopenia are conditions intertwined with frailty. Phase angle (PhA), used to evaluate nutritional status and sarcopenia, shows the cell membrane integrity and is closely related to clinical outcomes and mortality in many chronic conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between PhA and frailty in community-dwelling older adults. Methods: The study included 299 older adults admitted to a geriatric outpatient clinic. A comprehensive geriatric assessment was performed on all participants. Frailty was evaluated via the Clinical Frailty Scale, ≥4 levels were accepted as living with frailty. All participants underwent bioelectrical impedance analysis, and PhA was recorded for each participant. Results: The prevalence of frailty among the participants was 53%. The median PhA was lower in patients living with frailty than in those who were robust (5.10 [4.55–7.80] and 5.90 [3.90–6.90] degrees, respectively, and P = 0.014). Multivariable regression analysis showed that PhA was also associated with frailty in both sexes (odds ratio [OR], 0.920; P = 0.034 for men; OR, 0.81; P = 0.005 for women, respectively) independent of age, handgrip strength, nutritional status, body mass index, living alone, and burden of morbidities. Conclusion: PhA calculated with bioelectrical impedance analysis was significantly associated with frailty. Further research with large samples is needed to determine whether PhA demonstrates potential utility as a biomarker for frailty.