Estimation of time since deposition of semen stain on different fabric types using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and chemometrics

Tastekin B., AKÇAN R., Evran E., TAMER U., ZENGİN H. Y., Yildirim M. S., ...More

Forensic science international, vol.354, pp.111885, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 354
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2023.111885
  • Journal Name: Forensic science international
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, Criminal Justice Abstracts, EBSCO Legal Collection, EBSCO Legal Source, EMBASE, Veterinary Science Database, DIALNET
  • Page Numbers: pp.111885
  • Keywords: Chemometrics, Forensic medicine, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Semen stain, Time since deposition
  • Hacettepe University Affiliated: Yes


Various body fluids such as blood, semen, vaginal secretions, and saliva are frequently encountered at crime scene. In cases of sexual assault, semen stains are one of the most reliable evidence of biological origin. In this study, our objective was to develop a method for estimating the time since deposition of semen stains on five different fabric types using Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) Spectroscopy, with a focus on a time frame of up to 8 weeks. Semen samples from six different volunteers were dripped onto five distinct fabric materials, and ATR-FTIR measurements were obtained at 17 different time points. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) methods were employed to differentiate semen stains on various fabric samples and estimate the age of semen stains. Models constructed using PCA and PLSR achieved high R2 values and low root-mean-square error (RMSE). While the performance varies depending on fabric types, it was observed that age estimation of semen stains can be made within following intervals: 0.39-0.76 days for 0-7 day range, 2.59-3.38 days for the 1-8 week range, and 3.98-8.1 days for the 0-56 day range. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics to estimate the age of human semen stains on various fabric types based on time-dependent spectral changes.