Iron overload is considered as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. The presence of hemochromatosis gene (HFE) mutations might exacerbate iron toxicity in the post-transplant setting. This prospective study was planned to evaluate the genetic spectrum of HFE mutations in Turkish patients undergoing HSCT and the impact of HFE genotype on transplant morbidity and mortality. HFE genotypes of 102 patients [median age, 27.5 years (16-64 years); male/female, 73:29], who underwent allogeneic HSCT, were analyzed. Twenty-two patients were heterozygous and 1 patient was homozygous for the H63D mutation, while the C282Y mutation was observed in none of our patients. The frequency of invasive fungal infections (IFI) was significantly higher in H63D-mutated patients (p=0.004). H63D mutation was identified as an independent risk factor for the development of IFI (p=0.006, OR=0.554, SE=0.208), without an impact on overall survival and transplant-related mortality. The multifactorial iron-overloaded state in HSCT recipientsmight affect the phenotypic expression of HFE mutations and alter the severity of clinical presentation. The impact of HFE genotype on iron parameters and transplant-related morbidity and mortality should be validated with further studies. © Springer-Verlag 2012.