The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship among the denture status, number of remaining teeth, and malnutrition in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Seventy-three patients (43 men/30 women) who required hemodialysis were included in the study. Weight and height, Kt/V, urea reduction ratio, midweek interdialytic weight gain, ultrafiltration volume, and erythropoietin dosage were determined for all patients. Laboratory measurements and predialysis blood samples for biomarkers were collected within the monthly routine tests. Dental examination focused on the denture status and total number of remaining teeth. Denture status were classified into two groups as prosthesis group (patients have prosthesis) and no prosthesis group (patients do not have any kind of prosthesis). And also, patients were assigned to one of four categories based on the number of remaining natural teeth: (i) edentulous, (ii) 1–7 teeth, (iii) 8–19 teeth, and (iv) >20 teeth. The data were statistically analyzed (a = 0.05). Body mass index values were increased in the prosthesis patients. Serum albumin levels of the CKD patients were under the reference value (3.8 g/dL) both in prosthesis and no prosthesis groups. Patients who have eight and more teeth showed higher serum albumin levels, and patients who had 1–7 teeth showed lower serum albumin levels in prosthesis group. CKD patients’ nutritional habits were affected by denture status (having prosthesis or not). The number of the remaining teeth in prosthesis group affected the serum albumin levels of CKD patients.